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Vitamin K Foods

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The U. S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin K in 1998. The IOM does not distinguish between K1 and K2 – both are counted as vitamin K. At that time, sufficient information was not available to establish EARs and RDAs for vitamin K. In instances such as these, the board sets Adequate Intakes (AIs), with the understanding that at some later date, AIs will be replaced by more exact information. The current AIs for adult women and men ages 19 and up are 90 and 120 μg/day, respectively. AI for pregnancy is 90 μg/day. AI for lactation is 90 μg/day. For infants up to 12 months, the AI is 2. 0-2. 5 μg/day; for children ages 1–18 years the AI increases with age from 30 to 75 μg/day. As for safety, the IOM sets tolerable upper intake levels (known as ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. Vitamin K has no UL, as human data for adverse effects from high doses are inadequate. Collectively, the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes.

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